Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are formed during the Maillard reaction where reducing carbohydrates react with lysine side chains and N-terminal amino groups of various macromolecules, particularly proteins (Figure 1). The advanced glycation end products can adversely affect the fuction of these macromolecules. One of the most prevalent AGE products, N-epsilon-(Carboxymethyl) Lysine, has been implicated in oxidative stress and vascular damage.
Advanced Glycation End Product Formation Pathways. CML = N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine. GOLD = glyoxal-derived lysine dimer. CEL = N-epsilon-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine. MOLD = methylglyoxal-derived lysine dimer. DOLD = 3-deoxyglucosone-derived lysine dimer. 3-DG = 3-deoxyglucosone.