Cellular proteins are subject to oxidative stress in the presence of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Depending on the ROS present, the resulting damage to the protein may take the form of nitration or oxidation of various amino acid residues. ROS may also result in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) or advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), both of which are stable markers of oxidative stress.
Our Protein Carbonyl Assays and Protein Nitration Assays provide a quick, sensitive method for detection of carbonyl residues and 3-nitrotyrosine residues, respectively. Both are available in a convenient Western blot format as well as a higher-throughput ELISA. Advanced Glycation End Products assays measure total AGE or a specific AGE species. The AOPP assay provides very fast results in a standard microplate reader. Our BPDE-Protein Adduct ELISA Kit provides fast and reliable detection of BPDE-protein adducts.
Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) has become widely recognized as an excellent tool in pre-clinical studies to monitor acute kidney tubular toxicity, by identifying adverse reactive drugs and therapeutic agents in drug development. Our KIM-1 assays detect human or rat KIM-1 in urine via two formats: lateral flow assay or ELISA.