Hypoxia, or low oxygen condition, is a normal physiological response to certain body stressors such as high altitudes. Such a condition can result in dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, and related reactions. These reactions may be a result of hypoxic conditions at the system level or the cellular level, or both.

Cell proliferation is an increase in the number of cells resulting from the normal, healthy process by which cells grow and divide. In this regard, cell proliferation can be a good indicator of general cell health. Cells that are subject to a variety of disease states may exhibit different rates of proliferation than normal cells. Therefore, measuring rates of cell proliferation between different cell populations may provide insight into the relative health of those cells.

Neoplastic transformation occurs via a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations that yield a cell population that is capable of proliferating independently of both external and internal signals that normally restrain growth. Anchorage-independent growth is one of the hallmarks of cell transformation, which is considered the most accurate and stringent in vitro assay for detecting malignant transformation of cells.

The most significant consequence of oxidative stress in the body is thought to be damage to DNA.  DNA may be modified in a variety of ways, which can ultimately lead to mutations and genomic instability. This could result in the development of a variety of cancers including colon, breast, and prostate. Here we discuss the various types of damage to DNA, including oxidative damage, hydrolytic damage, DNA strand breaks, and others.

Cells go through a natural life cycle which includes growth, maturity, and death. This natural life cycle is regulated by a number of factors, and the disruption of the cycle is involved in many disease states. For example, cancer cells do not die the way normal cells do at the end of their life cycle. Here we look at the various processes by which cells age and die, both programmed and unprogrammed.