Quick Facts about DNA
- Adenine (A)
- Guanine (G)
- Cytosine (C)
- Thymine (T)
DNA Damage vs. DNA Mutation
- Recognized by enzymes > Correctly repaired > Replicates healthy DNA
- Not recognized by enzymes > Cannot be repaired > Replicates mutated DNA
Note: Errors during replication or repair of damaged DNA can turn into mutation.
Exploring 4 Types of DNA Damage
- Ongoing stress
- UV light
Why is it bad?
- High levels of oxidative stress can overwhelm the body’s natural defenses and destroy genetic material, resulting in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a common marker for oxidative damage.
- Decreased DNA repair
- Increased susceptibility to cancer (colon, breast, prostate)
Hydrolytic & Metabolic Damage
- Biochemical reactions of various metabolites
- Overabundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
- ROS: chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen
Why is it bad?
This type of damage contributes to a loss of DNA bases called AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites, which are easily mutated.
- Inhibited transcription
- Replication of mutated cells
- Progression of cancer
DNA Strand Break Damage
- UV-B light > pyrimidine dimers > direct DNA damage
- Occurs in areas on the body that are directly exposed to UV-B light
- UV-A light > free radicals > indirect DNA damage
- Absorbed into Chromophore and travels though body with potential to affect other areas of body (even inner organs)
- Inhibits expression of multiple genes
- Progression of skin cancers
Toxic Pollutant Damage
How does it happen?
- Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are potent atmospheric pollutants. The following are examples of damaging pollutants.
- Cigarette smoke
- Automobile exhaust fumes
- Tumor development
- Permanent mutations
- Cell transformation
The Real Issue With DNA Damage
- Early senescence (biological aging)
- Apoptosis (cell death) which can lead to atrophy
- Cancer (uncontrolled cell growth of the damaged cell)
Tips for Preventing Damage to Your DNA
- Healthy diet
- Regular exercise
- UV protection
Brought to you by Cell Biolabs | www.cellbiolabs.com